post written by Kiona Freeman, K-State student in Arts & Sciences and former Meadow intern
For many reasons, the Meadow is of value to the K-State campus and the Manhattan community. Planted by seed in 2013, the Meadow has become a space within campus that has benefits for students and faculty, and offers a place to experience native species of the Flint Hills Ecoregion. Through various research and observation projects the value of the Meadow can be seen and evaluated based on its qualities for learning, restoring, and experience.
Research and observation conducted during the growing season of 2016 has shown that the Meadow is home to multiple orders of native insects, including: “…Hymenoptera (Bees), Hymenoptera (Ants), Hymenoptera (Wasps), Lepidoptera (Butterfly/ Moths), Arachnid (Spiders), Coleopera (Beetles), Odonata (Dragonflies), Orthoptera (Grasshoppers), Diptera (Flies), and other unidentified orders” (Canfield, et al. 2018, 20-21). The discoveries were made through observation counts and pan trapping. This study exemplifies the benefit the Meadow provides to the network of ecosystem services on campus and symbolizes the potential opportunities for further research. The Meadow serves as an on campus opportunity for course identification exercises and learning of methods for investigating ecosystem services. The Meadow has become home to many species, thus becoming home to many opportunities.
Restoring Ecosystem Health
The Meadow is intended to be a site scale functioning ecological design that offers various ecosystem functions. To test the Meadow for such ecosystem functions and health, students evaluated and scored the Meadow based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment Rubric, written by Dr. Trisha Moore. The factors considered were Plant Health, Soil Erosion, Soil Health and Structure, and Faunal Health. The scale was divided into four categories: 1-Poor, 2-Fair, 3-Good, 4-Excellent (Canfield, et al. 2018, Appendix 4). The Meadow received an overall score of 3.56 in the combined four categories. Scoring excellent in the categories of Plant Health and Soil Erosion, Meadow is thriving in the categories of plant density, diversity, and overall health with the soil remaining in good position and intact (Canfield, et al. 2018, 14). Scores for Soil Health and Faunal Health were good, demonstrating that the there was a presence of desirable species ranging from birds to arachnids. Although these assessments were made by students in a short amount of time, it does indicate that the Meadow is a healthy landscape, serving the ecosystem functions the are benefitting campus, and playing a role in the overall health and wellness of the Manhattan community.
The Meadow is a landscape that is serving many functions. It is a landscape that has the potential to enrich various groups of people, and it is a landscape that is home to many native animals and insects. The Meadow is an area on campus for reflection, appreciation, and experiencing the power of a native grass landscape at site scale. Through the use of signage, visitors can come to understand the Meadow’s purpose while immersing themselves in an experience unlike any other on campus. The Meadow has the potential to bring nature to a community of individuals who may not have the resources or time to go seek out nature. While walking through the Meadow, sounds of the insects, bird, and small mammals speak to you, colors of the native vegetation draw in your eyes and attention, and the immersive experience allows for individuals to reach out and interact with the vegetation, even create art.
Canfield, Jessica, Lee R. Skabelund, Katie Kingery-Page, and Stacy Hutchinson. 2018. Green Infrastructure Demonstration and Training: Monitoring and Interpreting Two Sites on the K-State Campus. Final Technical Report, Manhattan: U.S. Enviornmental Protection Agency.: p 14, 20-21, Appendix 4
Big thanks to our end of 2018 volunteers! Susmita, Ruby, Krista, Karen, and Allen, we are grateful for you. Also, props to Lindsay, Marvin, and Jess for cutting back the season’s growth; and we have special gratitude for Joe Meyer and his team for hauling away the biomass. The Meadow will now await Spring.
The benefits of creating an urban native plants meadow are many: habitat and forage for pollinators, increased stormwater infiltration of runoff on a site, increased plant bio-diversity, potential for informal learning about eco-systems….These are just a few of many reasons.
Related to establishing community meadows, Katie Kingery-Page recently gave a keynote address to the Kansas Native Plants Society, “Ten Lessons for Urban Native Plants Meadows.” See a summary of this talk on the Dyck Arboretum of the Plains blog.
The Meadow blog’s mission is to be a living archive about the Meadow and a helpful resource for those interested in community-based native plants meadows. We’ve been digging through our archives from the very start of Meadow planning and selected this Plan of Work document to share. It was an evolving document and later changed to reflect roles of the Meadow partners. For example, faculty in K-State’s Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional & Community Planning, along with Beach Museum staff, have led Meadow maintenance with the help of so many terrific volunteers.
If your community is planning a meadow, we recommend having a clear document assigning roles and outlining the work needed to build a slow landscape. Below is our example.
 For more on slow landscapes, see Elizabeth K. Meyer’s article “Slow Landscape: A New Erotics of Sustainability” in Issue 31 (2009) of Harvard Design Magazine.
On an unseasonably cool, July day, I met Dr. Sherry Haar (of the Department of Apparel, Textiles, and Interior Design at K-State) in the Meadow for an intro lesson in natural plant dyes.
Dr. Haar’s research centers on natural plant dyes and expands into many areas of sustainability. She has recently begun work with textiles that may impact natural funereal and burial practices. Fascinating, isn’t she? Now that I have your attention, here’s a bit of what Dr. Haar showed me today:
Dr. Haar began by testing several species of flower using fabric test strips. Each strip contains different samples of fabrics in a fabric family, such as silks, or cellulose fabrics (cotton, linen, rayon…).
The test strip quickly absorbed a brilliant orange color from Coreopsis tinctoria (annual plains coreopsis).
Dr. Haar explained other processes she uses to experiment with natural plant dyes. She will often “bundle” plants in fabric pre-treated with a mordant, to reveal what effects the flower, leaf, or stem of a plant may create. She also “pounds” plant material into pre-treated fabric, which results in brilliant colors with realistic pattern impressions of the plant’s structure.
Dr. Haar’s fabric designs are stunning; she has designed many fabrics for garments and other uses. We look forward to her use and her students’ use of the K-State Meadow!
Postscript: After the Meadow visit, Haar placed the bundled plants in pretreated fabric in a sunny, outdoor location.
After several weeks in the sun, Haar opened the bundles to view the plant dye effects:
The Meadow was conceived, in part, as a contemplative space in the heart of the K-State campus. The Meadow’s initial installation was possible thanks to a memorial donation in honor of Professor William C. Hummel and Sara T. Hummel. Descendants and extended family of the Hummels have enjoyed visiting the Meadow and often take part in volunteer work days.
Summer 2015 brings a new layer of meaning to the Meadow. This spring, a group of K-State staff in the Division of Communications and Marketing decided to remember their colleague, Trevor Davis, through a contribution to plantings at the Meadow. Thanks to Mr. Davis’ friends, nearly 200 wild blue indigo (Baptisia australis) plants will blossom in the coming years. Wild blue indigo typically takes two years of growth before it blooms, so we’ll expect to see this purple tribute in 2017.
Mr. Davis, a writer, is remembered by his colleagues as full of verve for life and a true joy to be around.
Fred Henley (BLA 1960) and Judy Henley (BS 1959) recently established the John and John T. Henley Meadow Excellence Fund as a resource for interpretation and maintenance of the Meadow. The Henleys are interested in the Meadow’s potential to serve as a “pointer” to the nearby Konza Prairie and as a resource for interpreting Kansas grasslands.
Thanks to the Henleys, 400 new plant plugs of little bluestem were added to the Meadow in May 2015 and a seasonal student employee has been hired to help with Meadow maintenance. The Henleys gift will help fulfill many needs at the Meadow.
If you’d like to learn more about supporting the Meadow, please contact Katie Kingery-Page at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Post written by Richard Dean Prudenti and Katie Kingery-Page.
Seeding of the Meadow began nearly two years ago. In that time the campus and community have witnessed the growth of a native plants landscape at K-State, just north of the Beach Museum of Art. Many people have shown great appreciation for the plants, the habitat and the landscape design elements. This became apparent when Richard Prudenti (graduate student in landscape architecture and co-author of this post) provided a tour of the Meadow for several alumni of landscape architecture during the 50th Anniversary celebration of the landscape architecture program at K-State.
The alumni questions and observations were enlightening, as this was their first visit to the Meadow. For example, one person inquired about the non-native trees in the landscape: How is it possible to create a sustainable Meadow with the current tree inventory? Will we replace them with native trees? As we await the regrowth of spring, we want to take a moment to answer these questions and others posed by visitors to the Meadow:
Q: Will we replace the current tree inventory with native trees?
A: The site currently holds six trees; two are native to Kansas: a Chinquapin Oak and an Eastern Red Cedar. The trees provide shade conditions that are much denser than that of an upland prairie, but this canopy does evoke a savannah-like feeling. Understanding the amenity of healthy trees in a campus environment, it makes sense to preserve these trees for their qualities of shade and enclosure of space. To a purist, preserving the healthy non-native trees that came with the site might be anathema, but the Meadow is a landscape of compromise between human needs and the desire to showcase native plants.
Our plan is that in a few more years, the Meadow can sustain itself and require very little maintenance. But just as in a natural grassland, tree seedling growth must be suppressed. Currently, seasonal mowing suppresses seedling trees in the Meadow.
Q: How was the under-story of plants designed?
A: The plant palette is drawn from the documented plant composition of the nearby Konza prairie, and includes species selected for a cohesive aesthetic effect as well as creation of animal habitat and a resource for understanding human use (for example, some native species are used by pollinators; others have been used by people for food and dye plants). Species were combined in five different mixes in response to sun/shade and edge conditions of the site. Still in its second year and a work in progress, it will take 3-5 years to reach the point where the Meadow maintains a dynamic equilibrium of native grasses and wildflowers.
During the 2014 growing season, transplantation of plants from K-State greenhouses increased species on site from 20 to more than 40, including milkweed and other species that provide food and habitat for Monarch butterflies and other pollinators. In the future, monitoring pollinators will be paramount to validating the Meadow’s existence and perhaps supporting the creation of additional “meadows” on campus.
Q: Will the Meadow be burned at some point?
A: Gaining permission for controlled burns is a concern, especially as close as the Meadow is to the Beach Museum of Art, McCain Auditorium, All Faiths Chapel, and other campus buildings. We feel a controlled burn could be safely planned as a celebratory and educational event. If the planning team is successful in obtaining permissions, a burn still cannot be held until the plants have sufficient root growth to survive a fire–typically not until 2-3 years after planting.
Q: What are the sustainability goals of The Meadow?
A: We have altered the landscape from turfgrass to native plants with far less water and chemical use than conventional lawns. Once fully‐established, the Meadow’s need for herbicides/pesticides and water usage beyond rainfall should be minimal or nonexistent. In addition, we believe the Meadow will decrease stormwater runoff into existing inlets on the site. We hope to begin monitoring stormwater runoff, chemical and water inputs, in comparison to a typical campus site, later this year.
Q: Will there be lighting in the Meadow?
A: Currently there is not a budget for expanding electrical service on the site and adding light fixtures. Our aspiration is to develop artful lighting.
Q: How is this landscape funded?
A: Thus far, the Meadow has been made possible by the generosity of private citizens such as the Hummel family (William and Sara Hummel Memorial Fund) and the Henley family (John and John T. Henley Meadow Excellence Fund). K-State’s Green Action Fund, a pilot fund through the Student Government Association, has also provided support. In addition, numerous in-kind hours of work have been given by faculty, staff, and community. We continue to seek out funds to accomplish a number of objectives.
Q: How will the memorial function of the Meadow be visually expressed?
A: From the beginning, the Meadow has served as a living memorial, which will be recognized on a sign planned for summer 2015.Since the construction, several people have approached the planning team asking that further memorials be incorporated in the Meadow. The Meadow planning team feels that for the meadow to function as a contemplative landscape, it must remain free of visual clutter. Thus, people have developed creative and meaningful ways to memorialize, including sponsoring and participating in planting days and donating seating elements.
Q: Will there be signage to explain the goals of the Meadow?
A: Every effort is being made to preserve the visual aesthetic of the Meadow. A subtle sign planned for the Meadow will refer visitors to a touchtable exhibit inside the museum. This display of visuals and information is currently under construction.
Q: Will we be monitoring the changes in soil and habitat, the use of water, etc.?
A: Kingery‐Page led an interdisciplinary team to plan and design the Meadow with “ecosystem services” in mind, as defined by the Sustainable Sites Initiative:
Local climate regulation
Air and water cleansing
Erosion and sediment control (the former turfgrass had areas of erosion from runoff and native plants now slow and capture sediment).
Hazard (flood) mitigation
Human health and well‐being benefits
Food and renewable non‐food products
In Fall 2014, faculty from the departments of Landscape Architecture/Regional & Community Planning and Bio-Agricultural Engineering applied for an EPA grant to monitor several sites on campus. The research anticipated at the Meadow will compare the chemical and water inputs as well as stormwater infiltration at the Meadow to a typical turfgrass area of equal size on campus.
Q: What is the primary goal of this project?
A: One of the overarching goals is to heighten awareness of the need to protect grasslands worldwide. More than 49% of grasslands have been destroyed worldwide and only 4 percent are currently protected.
The Meadow is a setting for careful observation, discussion, and drawing activities, encouraging visitors to make meaningful connections between art, science, and enjoyment of the natural world. The site fosters lifelong learning about the Flint Hills ecoregion and sustainable landscape management.
A Special Thank You
We greatly appreciate those who participated in touring the Meadow fall 2014. Your interest in learning about the Meadow, its purpose, and what we might be doing next proved quite valuable in our planning efforts. Your thoughts and responses to the Meadow experience will continue to help us as we develop the Meadow.
Since May, we’ve been busy planting native plant plugs (some we grew, some we purchased, all funded by K-State Green Action Fund), weeding, and grooming the Meadow.
Plant establishment is going well, as you can see in the lush photos, but we are still fighting several weed species. We continue to rely upon cutting back (weed whipping) and hand pulling to manage weeds. We did make a rare exception for a one-time herbicide application to a very small area of bindweed (about 12 feet along a 3 foot deep swathe of the western edge of the Meadow).
This week, we enjoy the blooming bee balm, butterfly milkweed, plains coreopsis, and rose verbena.
Spring 2014 thank you’s are due to:
Kathrine Schlageck, Boy Scout organizer extraordinaire
Boy Scouts of Manhattan Troop 75
Dr. Valerie Wright
Dr. Rhonda Janke
Dr. Zakary Ratajczak
Troy Britt, museum employee, art student, and expert ‘raking artist’
Chelcie Sutherland, museum employee and photographer
Lindsay Smith, museum exhibit designer, willing weeder, and constant Meadow groomer
Richard Dean Prudenti, museum special projects employee and LARCP student assigned to the Meadow
Joe Myers, Annette Finkeldei, and Dan McGee of K-State Grounds for their expert and timely assistance