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Extension Entomology

Category: Greenhouse

Dormant Oils

–by Dr. Raymond Cloyd

Dormant oils are applied during winter in order to deal with insect and mite pests that survive the winter in overwintering life-stages, such as eggs or mature females. Instead of waiting until spring to initiate “control” measures, the application of dormant oils may be helpful in reducing costs associated with pesticide inputs (in this case, insecticides and miticides) later in the season (spring through fall). The advantages of applying dormant oils include: 1) a wide range of activity against most species of mites and scales—even the eggs; 2) minimal potential for resistance developing in insect and/or mite pest populations; 3) less direct and indirect harmful effects to beneficial insects and predatory mites compared to pesticides with long-residual activity; and 4) relatively low toxicity to humans and other mammals. The disadvantages of dormant oils include; potential phytotoxicity during the growing season and minimal residual activity or persistence.

Dormant oils are typically derived from paraffinic crude oil, and are the heaviest of the petroleum-based oil sprays with a low unsulfonated residue (Figure 1).

figure-1-dormant-oil-product

Figure 1: Dormant Oil Product

The unsulfonated residue is an assessment of the phytotoxic compounds remaining after distillation and refining. An unsulfonated residue >92% indicates a highly refined product with less potential for phytotoxicity. Dormant oils generally have a unsulfonated residue value <92%.

Dormant oil applications are primarily directed at killing overwintering pests including certain mites and scales (Figure 2),

figure-2-dormant-oil-product-label-information

Figure 2: Dormant Oil Product Label Information.

before they become active in the spring and are capable of causing plant injury. Applications are made during winter so as to minimize phytotoxicity to ornamental plants. A 2% to 4% application rate is generally recommended in late fall to early spring. Dormant oils have contact activity and either suffocate; by blocking the breathing pores (spiracles), or directly penetrate and disrupt cell membranes of exposed insect and mite pests. However, dormant oils have minimal residual activity once residues dissipate, so thorough coverage of all plant parts is essential.

Since dormant oils are applied to all plant parts, the overwintering stage of the insect or mite pest must be located on the plant. However, not all insect and mite pests overwinter on plants. For example, dormant oil applications are not effective against the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) because the mite overwinters as a female in plant debris, mulch, or other non-plant protected places. In contrast, the spruce spider mite (Oligonychus ununguis) overwinters as an egg on plants, primarily evergreens such as arborvitae, hemlock, juniper, and pine; so the spruce spider mite is susceptible to dormant oil sprays.

Dormant oils are effective in killing the overwintering stages of scales, especially first and second instars or nymphs (=crawlers). For example, euonymus scale (Unaspis euonymi) overwinters as second instar nymphs or mature females; both life stages are susceptible to dormant oil applications. However, certain scales that overwinter as eggs such as oystershell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) and pine needle scale (Chionaspis pinifoliae) are more tolerant of dormant oil applications because the eggs are generally stacked or piled on top of each other. Subsequently, dormant oils may not penetrate and contact the bottom layer. As a result, additional insecticide applications are typically required after egg hatch.

An issue when using dormant oils is the potential for plant injury or phytotoxicity. Some plants, such as arborvitae, beech, redbud, and certain maples (Japanese, red, sugar, and amur), may be harmed by dormant oil sprays. Furthermore, the needles of Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens) may be discolored or change from blue to green as a result of a dormant oil application. Phytotoxicity may be a problem when >4% application rates are used and/or when applications are performed in early fall before dormancy or in late spring at bud-break. Problems associated with phytotoxicity are less likely to occur when applications are made in early November through February, which is when most plants are completely dormant. In order to avoid phytotoxicity, always ensure the spray solution is continually agitated. Also, never apply dormant oils when temperatures are ≤32ºF. Dormant oils should be applied to deciduous plants when the ambient air temperature will stay above freezing for at least 24 hours. Evergreens, in general, are more susceptible to damage than deciduous plants, so it is best to apply dormant oils when temperatures remain above 40ºF over a 24-hour period although there is no quantitative evidence suggesting that applications made at <40°F will damage dormant fruit trees. In addition, general recommendations are that dormant oils should never be applied to plants that are stressed since stressed plants are more susceptible to phytotoxicity. For example, lack of moisture, extreme temperatures, and sudden drastic changes in the ambient air temperatures after spraying, prolonged windy conditions, and disease or insect infestations may predispose plants to phytotoxicity. However, there is no direct evidence indicating that dormant oils are harmful to stressed trees.

There is a general misconception that insect and mite pest populations are unable to develop resistance to dormant oils. However, this is not true. For instance, a Christmas tree plantation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees was sprayed with dormant oils for more than 10 years in succession to “control” pine needle scale. Eventually, the scale population became more and more difficult to “control.” Why? Well, what was discovered was that the scale covers actually increased in thickness; making it difficult for the dormant oil to penetrate the outer covering and kill the eggs.

Preventative dormant oil applications may avoid dealing with abundant insect and/or mite pest populations during the season. Therefore, inputs from insecticide and/or miticide applications may be reduced, thus preserving the natural enemies of mites and scales, including; predators and parasitoids that may naturally regulate populations of these pests.

 

Kansas Greenhouse Growers Association 2016 Biological Control Workshop

–by Dr. Raymond Cloyd

 

Kansas Greenhouse Growers Association 2016 Biological Control Workshop

OCTOBER 18, 2016

POTTHORF HALL, MANHATTAN, KS

 

SCHEDULE

8:00 to 9:00 AM         Registration

9:00 to 10:00 AM       Fundamentals of biological control (Dr. Raymond Cloyd)

10:00 to 10:45 AM     How to succeed using biological control (Chris Fifo)

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10:45 to 11:30 PM      The challenges associated with rearing natural enemies (Brian Spencer)

11:30 to 12:15 PM      Panel Discussion: Why we use biological control (Tim Sullivan, Karen Pendleton, and Eric or Evan Nelson)

12:15 to 1:00 PM        Lunch

1:00 to 3:00 PM          Demonstrations and samples of beneficial insects, mites, and nematodes (Dr. Raymond Cloyd, Brian Spencer, and Chris Fifo)

3:00 to 3:30 PM          Conclusion and Evaluation

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Kansas Greenhouse Growers Association

 Biological Control Workshop

October 18, 2016

 

POTTORF Hall

1710 Avery Drive

Manhattan, KS 66503

CICO Park

 

REGISTRATION FORM

 

Name: ­________________________________________________________________________________

 

Business Affiliation: ______________________________________________________________________

 

Address: ­______________________________________________________________________________

 

City/Count/State/Zip: _____________________________________________________________________

 

Phone: ( _____ ) _______________ Fax: ( _____ ) _______________ E-Mail: _______________________

 

Additional Attendees (needed for name badges):

 

  1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________

 

  1. ________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________

 

Total Number Attending: _____________

 

 

 

One Day Event:

 

Individual                                                                              ___________ @ $  50 = __________

Vendor                                                                                   ___________ @ $100 = __________

Student                                                                                  ___________ @ $  15 = __________

 

Please send a check made out to: “The Kansas Greenhouse Growers Association” OR pay with a check at the registration desk at the workshop.

 

 

Return to:            Dr. Raymond Cloyd

Department of Entomology

Kansas State University

123 Waters Hall

Manhattan, KS 66506-4004

Rose Sawflies

–by Raymond Cloyd

There are at least two species of sawflies that attack roses during this time of year; the rose slug (Endelomyia aethiops) and bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis). Rose slugs are the immature (larval) stage of sawflies, which are black to yellow-colored wasps.

Rose sawfly females make pockets or slits along the edges of rose leaves using their saw-like ovipositor (egg-laying devise), and insert individual eggs. Eggs hatch into larvae that look-like a slug. Larvae are 1.2 cm in length when fully grown and yellow-green in color, with an orange head (Figure 1). The larvae eventually fall on the soil surface to

Figure1RoseSawflyLarvaeFeedingOnLeafUnderside

pupate. Rose slugs overwinter as pupae in earthen cells created by the larvae. There is usually one generation per year in Kansas. Bristly rose slug larvae are pale-green in color and 1.5 to nearly 2.0 cm long. The body is covered with numerous bristle-like hairs (Figure 2). There is generally one generation per year in Kansas.

Figure2BristlyRoseSlugLarvaeFeedingOnLeafUnderside

 

Rose slug larvae feed on the underside of the leaf resulting in the leaves having a skeletonized appearance (Figure 3), eventually they create notches or holes on the leaf margins. Bristly rose slug larvae feed on the leaf undersides and also cause leaves to appear skeletonized (Figure 4). However, the larvae may chew larger holes than the rose slug.

Figure3FeedingDamageCausedByRoseSawflyLarvae

Small infestations of either the rose sawfly or bristly rose slug can be removed by hand and subsequently placed into a container of soapy water. A forceful water spray will quickly dislodge sawfly larvae from rose plants; consequently, sawfly larvae are not able to crawl back onto rose plants. A number of contact insecticides (various active ingredients) may be effective in suppressing populations of both sawflies. However, the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (sold as Dipel or Thuricide) will have no activity on sawflies as this compound only works on caterpillars.

Figure4FeedingDamageCausedByBristlyRoseSlugLarvae

 

 

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